Some people argue that this is a question of international relations theory and others say it is a question of foreign policy theory. For our purposes, we can  Missing: bilateral ‎| ‎Must include: ‎bilateral. Finding the Diplomatic Strategy of Sino-Japanese Relations in the Cold War Era International Relation theories (IR theories) are grounded on European and. Bilateral intelligence cooperation has received increased attention in recent years, thanks in part to its publicly acknowledged role in supporting sovereign states.


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This dissertation seeks to address these gaps in the Intelligence Studies literature by leveraging insights from two theoretical traditions from International Relations--the dyadic democratic peace and relational contracting perspectives--to develop candidate explanations of why certain pairs of states engage in greater degrees of intelligence cooperation over time than others.

The job of US foreign policy is not done until all states are democratic and all nations have free bilateral relations theory economies.

Bilateralism - Wikipedia

Organizational level analysis examines the way in which organizations within a state function to influence foreign policy behavior.

Organizations bargain with each other to create a foreign policy that is a compromise between bilateral relations theory organizations. This level of analysis for example, might look at the Iraq war and try to explain it by examining the interests of the US bilateral relations theory, the department of defense, the state department, and central intelligence agency.

How did these organizations create US foreign policy would be the key question at this level of analysis. Individual level analysis focuses on people.

People make decisions within nation states and therefore people make bilateral relations theory policy. Scholars might look at the roles of different leaders. It might look at the end of the cold war by studying Gorbachev.

This level of analysis also includes cognitive theories theories that explain foreign policy by looking at the way leaders perceive the world. The first rejection of bilateralism came after the First World War when many politicians concluded that the complex pre-war system of bilateral treaties had made war inevitable.

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This led to the creation of the multilateral League of Nations which was disbanded in failure after 26 years. A similar reaction against bilateral trade agreements occurred after the Great Depressionwhen it was argued that such agreements helped produce a cycle of rising tariffs that deepened the economic downturn.

Bilateralism has bilateral relations theory flexibility and ease lacking in most compromise-dependent multilateral systems. In addition, disparities in power, resources, money, armament, or technology are more easily exploitable by the stronger side in bilateral diplomacy, which powerful states might consider as a positive aspect of it, compared to the more consensus-driven multilateral form of diplomacy, where the one state-one vote rule applies.

These cultural and material exchanges led to bilateral relations theory international order based upon mutual reciprocity rather than absolute power or control.


It is quite extraordinary that despite the geographical proximity, unlike other Western civilizations, the Chinese and Indian civilizations have enjoyed peaceful and mutually enriching relations for over twenty centuries until the Cold War period.

A vibrant cultural, commercial and political relationship was blossoming between the two civilizations prior to the Christian era and was reflected bilateral relations theory exchanges in diverse fields such as agriculture, science, mathematics, astronomy literature, linguistics, architecture and medicine Sen China and India both claim to be victims of extractive colonialism and this sense of victimhood shapes their contemporary international relations objectives of protecting absolute sovereignty and bilateral relations theory their international prestige.

In the case of both China and India the national identity construction is sustained from the entitlement of glorious civilizational heritage.

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The construction of the national and civilizational identities is a multi-layered process that involves several competing frames of political, cultural, social and ethnic affiliations. These different affiliations often overlap and some of the characteristics used in this process of identity construction are shared between China and India.

This is not to claim that both societies bilateral relations theory exactly the same attributes in the construction of their civilizational identity; rather to highlight the differences in the definition and deployment of these characteristics.

Generally, national identity is associated with political representation while civilizational identity denotes cultural affiliations. However, in the case of China and India the national and civilizational identities are considered interchangeable, and both of these identities have acquired political connotations.

China and India share a common civilizational heritage largely through Buddhism, which may be considered as a coherent cultural complex, in a much broader sense than a civilization. In this case, Buddhism does not override the distinct civilizational identities contained within it.


It is not the whole but one constituent element of the larger structure of the Chinese bilateral relations theory Indian civilizations. The spread of Buddhism to China bilateral relations theory certain Indian cultural elements into China, and in due course, some of these distinctly Indian elements became part of the Chinese civilization.

Sinicized Buddhism thrived alongside Confucianism and Daoism.